The automotive water pump is a simple centrifugal pump that is driven by a belt connected to the engine’s crankshaft. The pump circulates the fluid when the engine is running. The water pump is vital to the operation of a car engine as it ensures that coolant flows through the cylinder head, radiator, hoses, and cylinder block and maintains the optimum automotive operating temperature; it is usually driven by a belt from a crankshaft pulley or sprocket.
An automotive water pump uses centrifugal force and impeller blades to move coolant through the various hoses and channels that make up the cooling system. After the coolant flows around the engine, usually at the front of the car, it is hosed to the radiator, where the hot coolant is cooled by air movement along with the radiator fins. It then leaves the radiator and returns to the water pump, where the process starts over.
Different types of automotive water pumps
In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of water pumps, it is crucial to familiarize ourselves with the various types that exist. Distinguishing between different types is essential as it allows us to recognize the specific adaptations made for trucks/industrial vehicles and passenger cars. Each category caters to the unique requirements of these vehicles. However, water pumps can be further categorized based on their design and functionality. Let’s explore these categories in more detail:
Mechanical water pumps
In mechanical water pumps, the coolant absorbs heat from the engine block and cylinder head and releases it to the ambient air through the radiator. Depending on the type of construction, mechanical water pumps can be seated in the pump housing itself on the outside of the engine, or they can be seated directly on the engine block. Generally, mechanical water pumps are driven by V-belts, timing belts, or directly from the engine.
Related content: What is the difference between electric and mechanical water pumps?
Variable water pumps
The main peculiarity of variable water pumps is that they allow the flow rate to be varied depending on the needs of the engine, this is done through a vacuum process. That is, the water pump acts on the cooling system only when necessary. In this way, it helps to increase the efficiency of the engine, which translates into lower fuel consumption and, therefore, a significant reduction in pollutant emissions into the atmosphere.
Electric water pumps
Electric water pumps help reduce emissions from modern engines. A supply flow independent of the number of revolutions of the motor enables cooling according to needs. This reduces the power required and therefore reduces friction losses, fuel consumption and emissions of pollutants.
Auxiliary water pumps
The main function of the auxiliary water pumps is to support the main water pump. However, the auxiliary water pump is more focused on comfort, since it is located in a by-pass hose of the main cooling system, and drives the coolant to the heater inside the car.
Some vehicles may have more than one auxiliary pump, depending on the complexity of the cooling system.
These auxiliary water pumps are also used in hybrid and electric vehicles in order to bring coolant to all corners of the system, since the batteries are also cooled, as are the electric motors.
If you are interested in this type of water pump, we recommend you read:
Electric or mechanical water pump? Which is the best?
Each water pump has its own advantages; compared with the mechanical water pump, the speed of the electric water pump is independent of the motor speed and can operate flexibly according to the actual cooling demand of the motor. Thus, heat transfer and mechanical losses are reduced; thus, fuel consumption is reduced, and efficiency is increased.
The electric water pump has good corrosion resistance and high-temperature resistance. The electric water pump provides high efficiency, precise control, timely and appropriate cooling capacity, the low power consumption of the coolant flow based on the water temperature and other information, shortens the coolant flow distance, and reduces the displacement of the water pump about 60%.
Reducing friction, the electric water pump is driven by electricity, compared with a mechanical water pump using an auxiliary belt drive, the friction work is reduced.
An electric water pump, in contrast, allows the manufacturer to set (with much greater precision) how much coolant flows through the engine at specified temperature ranges. So it’s actually more efficient and more tailored to your engine’s specific cooling needs.
Dolz, manufacturer of different types of water pumps
Industrias Dolz, with over 80 years of history, is a world leader in the manufacture of water pumps for the spare parts industry. Dolz has always produced high-quality water pumps for cars and trucks, which allows us to offer different types of water pumps, mechanical, electric, variables and auxiliary, with the longest experience on the market. So if you are looking for the best water pump for your vehicle no look further, Dolz has a great range water pump that suits all your automotive needs. Contact us for further information.